Male Hawkers or Marketers, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ca. 1770s


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Image Reference
juliao10

Source
Carlos Juliao, Riscos illuminados de figurinhos de broncos e negros dos uzos do Rio de Janeiro e Serro do Frio (Rio de Janeiro, 1960), plate 34. The prints used as plates in this book are housed in the Secao de Iconografia in the National Library of Brazil; the historical introduction and descriptive catalog were written by Lygia da Foneseca Fernandes da Cunha. (Copy in Tulane University Library)

Comments
The man on the left is simply identified as a "Black Seller of Capim," a type of grass or "Guinea grass" which he is carrying on his head; while the man on the right is specifically identified as a "Slave Seller of Milk," and is shown with a pot of milk on his head; he is also wearing the iron collar and leg band that was placed on slaves who had a tendency to become fugitives. Born in Italy ca. 1740, Juliao joined the Portuguese army and traveled widely in the Portuguese empire; by the 1760s or 1770s he was in Brazil, where he died in 1811 or 1814. For a detailed analysis and critique of Juliao's figures as representations of Brazilian slave life, as well as a biographical sketch of Juliao and suggested dates for his paintings, see Silvia Hunold Lara, Customs and Costumes: Carlos Juliao and the Image of Black Slaves in Late Eighteenth-Century Brazil (Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23 [2002], pp. 125-146).