Creole Men and Women, Jamaica, 1838

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This record was last updated on 31 May 2011

Image Reference

Isaac Mendes Belisario, Sketches of character, in illustration of the habits, occupation, and costume of the Negro population, in the island of Jamaica: drawn after nature, and in lithography (Kingston, Jamaica: published by the artist, at his residence, 1837-1838).

The artist captions this lithograph “Creole Negroes.” The woman (upper left) “represents a vender of sausages about the streets, and is selected as an example of the inconsistency frequently observable in the Negro-class, who, while they are engaged in the meanest occupation, are still attentive to the adornment of their person”; the woman is shown with an elaborate head-tie, jewelry, and a small blue purse dangling from her waist. In the upper right, the man is wearing “the ordinary costume” of the field worker. “His Kilmarnock cap, a coarse black hat is also worn; these added to a blue checked shirt, Oznaburgh trowsers, and contoon, or cloak made of dark blue woolen-cloth called Pennistone, complete the ordinary costume.” The man on the lower left is also a “field-Negro,” shown with similar clothing. The older woman (lower right) wears a head-tie and is shown with her “chew-stick” (sometimes, “chaw-stick”). “The pearly whiteness of teeth so universal with the Negroes,” Belisario writes, “is in a great measure produced by the constant use of a withe, called chew-stick, which they cut into small pieces, and employ as a tooth-brush—it has a bitter juice, of a powerfully detergent quality.” Isaac Mendes Belisario was born in Kingston in 1794 into a merchant family of Sephardic Jews. He was sent to London in 1803 to reside with the English branch of the family. In England he studied painting. Belisario returned to Jamaica in 1834, and stayed until 1839 when he returned to London. Coming again to Jamaica around 1842, he remained until 1849 when he again returned to London where he died in June of that year. The lithograph shown here is one of 12, originally published in three parts, 4 plates at a time. All are based on drawings made “from life” or “after nature” by Belisario during his residence in Kingston during the mid- to- late1830s. The lithographs were hand tinted in color and were printed by the French-born artist/lithographer Adolphe Duperly, a friend of Belisario. The 12 lithographs have been reproduced in facsimile, with their entire accompanying descriptive texts authored by Belisario, in two lavishly illustrated and well researched volumes, both of which contain a great deal of material on Belisario, his life and the world in which he lived: Tim Barringer, Gillian Forrester, Barbaro Martinez-Ruiz [and others], Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007); and Jackie Ranston, Belisario: Sketches of Character: A Historical Biography of a Jamaican Artist (Kingston, Jamaica; Mills Press, 2008). The former volume contains a number of essays by different scholars dealing with Belisario, his art, and various aspects of Jamaican society and history; the latter treats similar subjects in less depth but goes into much greater detail on family history and various people Belisario encountered during his lifetime and who had an influence on his art. The Institute of Jamaica published full color photographic reproductions of a complete set of the Sketches of Character lithographs in its collection; each image is printed separately on stiff paper (albeit with no textual material) and was made available for public purchase. No imprint information is given for the Institute’s re-issue, but it was probably done in the 1970s.