Woman with a Grinding Stone, Central Africa, 1858-64

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Image Reference

David and Charles Livingstone, Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its Tributaries; and of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864 (London, 1865; reprinted New York, 1866), facing p. 543. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library)

Caption, "woman grinding"; shows woman kneeling over grinding stone. "The mill consists of a block [of stone] . . . with a piece of quartz or other hard rock about the size of a half brick, one side of which has a convex surface, and fits into a concave hollow in the larger and stationary stone. The workwoman kneeling, grasps this upper millstone with both hands, and works it backwards and forwards in the hollow of the lower millstone...." (Livingstone, pp. 543-44). The same image, albeit reversed, is printed in Frank Leslie's Boy's and Girl's Weekly (1869), vol. 5, no. 122, p. 285.